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History / history of the creation of the museum

History / history of the creation of the museum

Chekhov's Melikhovo is one of the best pages in the history of Russian literature. Anton Pavlovich Chekhov lived here for seven years, from 1892 to 1899. The course of Melikhovo’s life is interesting because not only the writer lived here, but also a doctor who saw a huge number of patients for free and fought against cholera; public figure, school builder.

A large number of acquaintances, events in villages and the “county town of S.” - all these are plots of Chekhov’s works of Melikhovo’s time. During this time, he created 42 masterpieces: the plays “Uncle Vanya” and “The Seagull”, short stories and tales “Ward No. 6”, “Sakhalin Island”, “House with a Mezzanine”, “My Life”, “Man in a Case”, “Gooseberry”, “About Love”, “Men” and others.

In 1899, for health reasons, Anton Pavlovich left for Yalta. Melikhovo was sold.

For a long time there was no museum here, but the Melikhovo estate has always attracted admirers of Chekhov's talent.

The museum in Melikhovo began its life in 1940. Of the memorial buildings by this time, one outbuilding, built by A.P., had survived. Chekhov in 1894, where he wrote the play “The Seagull”. On March 14, 1940, by the decision of the Executive Committee of the Moscow Regional Council of Workers' Deputies, a museum named after A.P. was organized in Melikhovo. Chekhov as a branch of the Serpukhov Museum of Local Lore. This date became the birthday of the A.P. Museum-Reserve. Chekhov "Melikhovo".

The war suspended museum life, but already on June 29, 1944, an independent “district museum named after Anton Pavlovich Chekhov” was created. In the 1950s, work began on restoring the manor house and it was completed by January 29, 1960, the centenary of Chekhov’s birth. In the same year, by decision of the Council of Ministers of the RSFSR, the museum was given the status of the State Literary and Memorial Museum-Reserve of A.P. Chekhov.

Thanks to the writer’s relatives, the house was filled with memorial items that are directly related to Anton Pavlovich and members of his family.

Currently, the Museum-Reserve includes: the main manor house, a memorial outbuilding, an outbuilding-kitchen, a bathhouse, numerous outbuildings, a fire shed, an exhibition of the ancient medical station "Ambulatory", a literary educational exhibition "The Writer's Kitchen", a large garden area. Two schools built by A.P. have survived. Chekhov. In the 1970s they were transferred to the museum. In the Melikhovo school there are unique exhibitions “Classroom of the old zemstvo school” and “Teacher’s apartment”. In 2009, a new literary exhibition “In the World of Chekhov’s Heroes” was opened at the Novoselkovsk school.

In 1987, a department of the museum was opened in the city of Chekhov, “Museum of Letters of A.P. Chekhov." The exhibition is located in the building of the old post office, opened on the initiative of the writer and the local intelligentsia in 1896 at Lopasnya station (now Chekhov). Here is a story about the old post office, about the fate of Anton Pavlovich’s letters and correspondents. And in the courtyard there is a monument to Chekhov by the wonderful sculptor M.K. Anikushina.

The ancient estate “Lopasnya-Zachatievskoye”, located in the city of Chekhov, where representatives of the prominent Russian noble families of the Vasilchikovs, Lanskys, Pushkins, and Goncharovs lived for many years, also became a branch of the museum. In the 1850s, the children of A.S. lived in this house with relatives. Pushkin, and his archive with the manuscript “The History of Peter the Great,” discovered in 1917, was kept.

Today, the museum’s collection, consisting of thirty thousand items, includes a unique collection of Chekhov’s relics: autographs of A.P. Chekhov and his relatives, original photographs, memorial items. Tourists are invariably interested in Anton Pavlovich’s coat, his hat and the famous white cap, shirt and bow tie. In the dining room, on a snow-white tablecloth, there is a service purchased in the Melikhovo years. On the desk in the office there is a pen, a pencil, Chekhov’s favorite inkwell and pince-nez.

The museum houses a “rare book” collection, which includes books with the writer’s autographs.

The museum's fine collection is a magnificent collection of paintings and graphics: works by I. Levitan, V. Polenov, N. Chekhov, M. Chekhova; scenographic works of such theater artists as E. Kumankov, V. Leventhal, E. Kachelaeva, E. Stenberg; illustrations for the works of A.P. Chekhov by artists Kukryniksy; sculptural portraits of Chekhov by G. Motovilov, M. Anikushin, I. Rukavishnikov.

Every year the museum is replenished with new exhibits. Museum objects are often exhibited at various exhibitions. Not only Russian museums, but also foreign ones, are showing interest in the museum collection. Since 1998, the museum has presented its exhibits in Germany, Hungary, Bulgaria, Serbia, France, and Belarus.

The museum does a lot of scientific and educational work. In recent years, several projects have been developed in which children and their parents participate: “In the footsteps of Kashtanka”, “Dacha fever or 22 innocent pleasures”, “Children”, “Marriage: pro et contra”. Young visitors, as well as adults, get acquainted with the life of A.P. with great interest. Chekhov in Melikhovo, with his works, participate in interactive classes, master classes, they become spectators of performances of the Melikhovo theater.

Since 2006, the museum has operated the Chekhov Studio theater, whose repertoire includes performances based on the works of A.P. Chekhov ("The Lady", "The Bear", "Psychopaths", "Antoshi Chekhonte's Country Theatre", "Chekhov. The Seagull", "Uncle Vanya", "Polite People", "The Black Monk", "Guide for Those Who Want to Get Married") and other writers. On Saturdays, the museum’s ticket office sells unusual tickets: they say “Theater Saturday.” On this day, excursionists, in addition to the manor buildings, can watch performances of our theater.

In the theater world, the International Theater Festival “Melikhovo Spring” is especially popular. This tradition was born back in 1982 with a performance at the Lipetsk Drama Theater. L.N. Tolstoy. And now theaters from around the world are proud to be participants in this festival.

Unforgettable celebrations of the New Year, Christmas, Shiroka Maslenitsa, three Spas (Honey, Apple, Bread) and the All-Russian festival “Chekhov’s Dachshunds” take place in the museum.

Continuing Chekhov’s traditions, the Charity Literary and Musical Marathon “Don’t get tired of doing good!” is held in Melikhovo every year on the writer’s Memorial Day, the main goal of which is to provide financial assistance to families with children with disabilities living in the urban district of Chekhov.

The museum has opened a Children's Museum Center, which can offer a whole range of different forms of work with children.

See also in section About the museum